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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Atucha [4]. Planned [5]. Embalse [6]. Under construction. Finished; never entered service. Westinghouse WH BR Douglas Point. Point Lepreau. I-3 [14]. I-4 [14]. Daya Bay Guangdong.

Haixing [21]. Hongyanhe I. Lianjiang [23]. Ling Ao I. Ningde I. San’ao [24]. Taipingling Huizhou. Xiapu [36]. Under construction [37]. VVER [23]. El Dabaa. Never built. December [46]. P4 REP N4 REP Shut down [48]. Shut down [49]. Shut down [50]. Bhimpur [52]. Chutka [53]. IPHWR [55]. IPHWR [56].

AP [57]. Kavali [58]. Mahi Banswara. CANDU [55]. Bangka Belitung. Unfinished; restart planned. Enrico Fermi. Alto Lazio. Fukushima Daiichi. Fukushima Daini. Operational [61]. Operation suspended under review [62]. Operation suspended.

Operation suspended restart approved [63]. Operational [64]. Operational [65]. Operation suspended restart approved [66]. Operation suspended restart approved [67]. Operation suspended restart approved [68]. Laguna Verde. Magnox Pu -production. Shut down [ citation needed ]. LWR [69]. Planned [69]. Unfinished; restart planned [71]. Harnessing fusion power in terrestrial conditions would provide sufficient energy to satisfy mounting demand, and to do so in a sustainable manner that has a relatively small impact on the environment.

One gram of deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in the process of nuclear fusion produces 90,kilowatt hours of energy, or the equivalent of 11 tonnes of coal. Nuclear fusion uses a different approach to traditional nuclear energy. Current nuclear power stations rely on nuclear fission with the nucleus of an atom being split to release energy. Nuclear fusion takes multiple nuclei and uses intense heat to fuse them together, a process that also releases energy.

Nuclear fusion has many potential attractions. The fuel is relatively abundant or can be produced in a fusion reactor. After preliminary tests with deuterium, ITER will use a mix of deuterium-tritium for its fusion because of the combination’s high energy potential. The first isotope, deuterium , can be extracted from seawater , which means it is a nearly inexhaustible resource.

On 21 November , the seven project partners formally agreed to fund the creation of a nuclear fusion reactor. The reactor was expected to take 10 years to build and ITER had planned to test its first plasma in and achieve full fusion by , however the schedule is now to test first plasma in and full fusion in The best result achieved in a tokamak is 0.

For commercial fusion power stations, engineering gain factor is important. Engineering gain factor is defined as the ratio of a plant electrical power output to electrical power input of all plant’s internal systems tokamak external heating systems, electromagnets, cryogenics plant, diagnostics and control systems, etc. Some nuclear engineers consider a Q of is required for commercial fusion power stations to be viable.

ITER will not produce electricity. Producing electricity from thermal sources is a well known process used in many power stations and ITER will not run with significant fusion power output continuously. Adding electricity production to ITER would raise the cost of the project and bring no value for experiments on the tokamak. One of the primary ITER objectives is to achieve a state of ” burning plasma “. No fusion reactors had created a burning plasma until the competing NIF fusion project reached the milestone on 8 August The bigger a tokamak is, the more fusion reaction-produced energy is preserved for internal plasma heating and the less external heating is required , which also improves its Q-value.

This is how ITER plans for its tokamak reactor to scale. Preparations for the Gorbachev-Reagan summit showed that there were no tangible agreements in the works for the summit. However, the ITER project was gaining momentum in political circles due to the quiet work being done by two physicists, the American scientist Alvin Trivelpiece who served as Director of the Office of Energy Research in the s and the Russian scientist Evgeny Velikhov who would become head of the Kurchatov Institute for nuclear research.

The two scientists both supported a project to construct a demonstration fusion reactor. At the time, magnetic fusion research was ongoing in Japan, Europe, the Soviet Union and the US, but Trivelpiece and Velikhov believed that taking the next step in fusion research would be beyond the budget of any of the key nations and that collaboration would be useful internationally.

My response was ‘great idea’, but from my position, I have no capability of pushing that idea upward to the President. This push for cooperation on nuclear fusion is cited as a key moment of science diplomacy , but nonetheless a major bureaucratic fight erupted in the US government over the project. One argument against collaboration was that the Soviets would use it to steal US technology and expertise.

A second was symbolic and involved American criticism of how the Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov was being treated. Sakharov was an early proponent of the peaceful use of nuclear technology and along with Igor Tamm he developed the idea for the tokamak that is at the heart of nuclear fusion research. This led to nuclear fusion cooperation being discussed at the Geneva summit and release of a historic joint statement from Reagan and Gorbachev that emphasized, “the potential importance of the work aimed at utilizing controlled thermonuclear fusion for peaceful purposes and, in this connection, advocated the widest practicable development of international cooperation in obtaining this source of energy, which is essentially inexhaustible, for the benefit of all mankind.

As a result, collaboration on an international fusion experiment began to move forward. This meeting marked the launch of the conceptual design studies for the experimental reactors as well as the start of negotiations for operational issues such as the legal foundations for the peaceful use of fusion technology, the organizational structure and staffing, and the eventual location for the project. This meeting in Vienna was also where the project was baptized the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, although it was quickly referred to by its abbreviation alone and its Latin meaning of ‘the way’.

Conceptual and engineering design phases were carried out under the auspices of the IAEA. These issues were partly responsible for the United States temporarily exiting the project in before rejoining in There was a heated competition to host the ITER project with the candidates narrowed down to two possible sites: France and Japan. In , Australia became the first non-member partner of the project. The ITER Council is responsible for the overall direction of the organization and decides such issues as the budget.

There have been three directors-general so far: [77]. ITER’s stated mission is to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power as a large-scale, carbon-free source of energy. The objectives of the ITER project are not limited to creating the nuclear fusion device but are much broader, including building necessary technical, organizational, and logistical capabilities, skills, tools, supply chains, and culture enabling management of such megaprojects among participating countries, bootstrapping their local nuclear fusion industries.

From to the middle of the s, hundreds of fusion scientists and engineers in each participating country took part in a detailed assessment of the tokamak confinement system and the design possibilities for harnessing nuclear fusion energy. The ITER project was initiated in Ground was broken in [88] and construction of the ITER tokamak complex started in Machine assembly was launched on 28 July When deuterium and tritium fuse, two nuclei come together to form a helium nucleus an alpha particle , and a high-energy neutron.

While nearly all stable isotopes lighter on the periodic table than iron and nickel , which have the highest binding energy per nucleon , will fuse with some other isotope and release energy, deuterium and tritium are by far the most attractive for energy generation as they require the lowest activation energy thus lowest temperature to do so, while producing among the most energy per unit weight.

All proto- and mid-life stars radiate enormous amounts of energy generated by fusion processes. Activation energies in most fusion systems this is the temperature required to initiate the reaction for fusion reactions are generally high because the protons in each nucleus will tend to strongly repel one another, as they each have the same positive charge.

In ITER, this distance of approach is made possible by high temperatures and magnetic confinement. ITER uses cooling equipment like a cryopump to cool the magnets to close to absolute zero. Additional heating is applied using neutral beam injection which cross magnetic field lines without a net deflection and will not cause a large electromagnetic disruption and radio frequency RF or microwave heating.

At such high temperatures, particles have a large kinetic energy , and hence velocity. If unconfined, the particles will rapidly escape, taking the energy with them, cooling the plasma to the point where net energy is no longer produced. A successful reactor would need to contain the particles in a small enough volume for a long enough time for much of the plasma to fuse.

A charged particle moving through a magnetic field experiences a force perpendicular to the direction of travel, resulting in centripetal acceleration , thereby confining it to move in a circle or helix around the lines of magnetic flux. A solid confinement vessel is also needed, both to shield the magnets and other equipment from high temperatures and energetic photons and particles, and to maintain a near-vacuum for the plasma to populate.

The material must be designed to endure this environment so that a power station would be economical. Once fusion has begun, high-energy neutrons will radiate from the reactive regions of the plasma, crossing magnetic field lines easily due to charge neutrality see neutron flux.

Since it is the neutrons that receive the majority of the energy, they will be ITER’s primary source of energy output. The inner wall of the containment vessel will have blanket modules that are designed to slow and absorb neutrons in a reliable and efficient manner and therefore protect the steel structure and the superconducting toroidal field magnets.

Energy absorbed from the fast neutrons is extracted and passed into the primary coolant. This heat energy would then be used to power an electricity-generating turbine in a real power station; in ITER this electricity generating system is not of scientific interest, so instead the heat will be extracted and disposed of. The vacuum vessel is the central part of the ITER machine: a double-walled steel container in which the plasma is contained by means of magnetic fields.

The ITER vacuum vessel will be twice as large and 16 times as heavy as any previously manufactured fusion vessel: each of the nine torus -shaped sectors will weigh approximately tons for a total weight of tons. When all the shielding and port structures are included, this adds up to a total of 5, tonnes. Its external diameter will measure Once assembled, the whole structure will be The primary function of the vacuum vessel is to provide a hermetically sealed plasma container.

Its main components are the main vessel, the port structures and the supporting system. The main vessel is a double-walled structure with poloidal and toroidal stiffening ribs between millimetre-thick 2. These ribs also form the flow passages for the cooling water. The space between the double walls will be filled with shield structures made of stainless steel.

The inner surfaces of the vessel will act as the interface with breeder modules containing the breeder blanket component. These modules will provide shielding from the high-energy neutrons produced by the fusion reactions and some will also be used for tritium breeding concepts. The vacuum vessel has a total of 44 openings that are known as ports — 18 upper, 17 equatorial, and 9 lower ports — that will be used for remote handling operations, diagnostic systems, neutral beam injections and vacuum pumping.

Remote handling is made necessary by the radioactive interior of the reactor following a shutdown, which is caused by neutron bombardment during operation. Vacuum pumping will be done before the start of fusion reactions to create the necessary low density environment, which is about one million times lower than the density of air. ITER will use a deuterium-tritium fuel, and while deuterium is abundant in nature, tritium is much rarer because it is a hydrogen isotope with a half-life of just This component, located adjacent to the vacuum vessel, serves to produce tritium through reaction with neutrons from the plasma.

There are several reactions that produce tritium within the blanket. ITER is based on magnetic confinement fusion that uses magnetic fields to contain the fusion fuel in plasma form.

The magnet system used in the ITER tokamak will be the largest superconducting magnet system ever built. The 18 toroidal field coils will also use niobium-tin. They are the most powerful superconductive magnets ever designed with a nominal peak field strength of There will be three types of external heating in ITER: []. The ITER cryostat is a large 3,tonne stainless steel structure surrounding the vacuum vessel and the superconducting magnets, with the purpose of providing a super-cool vacuum environment.

The divertor is a device within the tokamak that allows for removal of waste and impurities from the plasma while the reactor is operating. At ITER, the divertor will extract heat and ash that are created by the fusion process, while also protecting the surrounding walls and reducing plasma contamination. The ITER divertor, which has been compared to a massive ashtray, is made of 54 pieces of stainless-steel parts that are known as cassettes. Each cassette weighs roughly eight tonnes and measures 0.

The divertor design and construction is being overseen by the Fusion For Energy agency. Separation of isotopes by laser excitation SILEX is well developed and is licensed for commercial operation as of Atomic vapor laser isotope separation employs specially tuned lasers [18] to separate isotopes of uranium using selective ionization of hyperfine transitions.

The technique uses lasers tuned to frequencies that ionize U atoms and no others. The positively charged U ions are then attracted to a negatively charged plate and collected. Molecular laser isotope separation uses an infrared laser directed at UF 6 , exciting molecules that contain a U atom. A second laser frees a fluorine atom, leaving uranium pentafluoride , which then precipitates out of the gas.

Separation of isotopes by laser excitation is an Australian development that also uses UF 6. After a protracted development process involving U. SILEX has been projected to be an order of magnitude more efficient than existing production techniques but again, the exact figure is classified.

Aerodynamic enrichment processes include the Becker jet nozzle techniques developed by E. Becker and associates using the LIGA process and the vortex tube separation process. These aerodynamic separation processes depend upon diffusion driven by pressure gradients, as does the gas centrifuge.

They in general have the disadvantage of requiring complex systems of cascading of individual separating elements to minimize energy consumption.

In effect, aerodynamic processes can be considered as non-rotating centrifuges. Enhancement of the centrifugal forces is achieved by dilution of UF 6 with hydrogen or helium as a carrier gas achieving a much higher flow velocity for the gas than could be obtained using pure uranium hexafluoride.

The Uranium Enrichment Corporation of South Africa UCOR developed and deployed the continuous Helikon vortex separation cascade for high production rate low-enrichment and the substantially different semi-batch Pelsakon low production rate high enrichment cascade both using a particular vortex tube separator design, and both embodied in industrial plant. However all methods have high energy consumption and substantial requirements for removal of waste heat; none is currently still in use.

In the electromagnetic isotope separation process EMIS , metallic uranium is first vaporized, and then ionized to positively charged ions.

The cations are then accelerated and subsequently deflected by magnetic fields onto their respective collection targets. A production-scale mass spectrometer named the Calutron was developed during World War II that provided some of the U used for the Little Boy nuclear bomb, which was dropped over Hiroshima in Properly the term ‘Calutron’ applies to a multistage device arranged in a large oval around a powerful electromagnet.

Electromagnetic isotope separation has been largely abandoned in favour of more effective methods. One chemical process has been demonstrated to pilot plant stage but not used for production.

An ion-exchange process was developed by the Asahi Chemical Company in Japan that applies similar chemistry but effects separation on a proprietary resin ion-exchange column. Plasma separation process PSP describes a technique that makes use of superconducting magnets and plasma physics.

In this process, the principle of ion cyclotron resonance is used to selectively energize the U isotope in a plasma containing a mix of ions. Funding for RCI was drastically reduced in , and the program was suspended around , although RCI is still used for stable isotope separation. Separative work is not energy.

The same amount of separative work will require different amounts of energy depending on the efficiency of the separation technology. In addition to the separative work units provided by an enrichment facility, the other important parameter to be considered is the mass of natural uranium NU that is needed to yield a desired mass of enriched uranium.

As with the number of SWUs, the amount of feed material required will also depend on the level of enrichment desired and upon the amount of U that ends up in the depleted uranium. However, unlike the number of SWUs required during enrichment, which increases with decreasing levels of U in the depleted stream, the amount of NU needed will decrease with decreasing levels of U that end up in the DU. For example, in the enrichment of LEU for use in a light water reactor it is typical for the enriched stream to contain 3.

On the other hand, if the depleted stream had only 0. Because the amount of NU required and the number of SWUs required during enrichment change in opposite directions, if NU is cheap and enrichment services are more expensive, then the operators will typically choose to allow more U to be left in the DU stream whereas if NU is more expensive and enrichment is less so, then they would choose the opposite. When converting uranium hexafluoride, hex for short to metal,.

The opposite of enriching is downblending; surplus HEU can be downblended to LEU to make it suitable for use in commercial nuclear fuel. High concentrations of U are a byproduct from irradiation in a reactor and may be contained in the HEU, depending on its manufacturing history. The production of U is thus unavoidable in any thermal neutron reactor with U fuel.

HEU reprocessed from nuclear weapons material production reactors with an U assay of approx. While U also absorbs neutrons, it is a fertile material that is turned into fissile U upon neutron absorption.

If U absorbs a neutron, the resulting short-lived U beta decays to Np , which is not usable in thermal neutron reactors but can be chemically separated from spent fuel to be disposed of as waste or to be transmutated into Pu for use in nuclear batteries in special reactors.


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